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Minnesota PROSTITUTION LAWS

Minnesota Prostitution and Solicitation Laws | 609.321

Prostitution and Sex Trafficking; Definitions – 609.321

Subdivision 1. Scope.

For the purposes of sections 609.321 to 609.325, the following terms have the meanings given.

Subd. 2. Business of prostitution.

“Business of prostitution” means any arrangement between or organization of two or more persons, acting other than as prostitutes or patrons, who commit acts punishable under sections 609.321 to 609.324.

Subd. 4. Patron.

“Patron” means an individual who engages in prostitution by hiring, offering to hire, or agreeing to hire another individual to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.

Subd. 5. Place of prostitution.

“Place of prostitution” means a house or other place where prostitution is practiced.

Subd. 7. Promotes the prostitution of an individual.

“Promotes the prostitution of an individual” means any of the following wherein the person knowingly:

(1) solicits or procures patrons for a prostitute;

(2) provides, leases or otherwise permits premises or facilities owned or controlled by the person to aid the prostitution of an individual;

(3) owns, manages, supervises, controls, keeps or operates, either alone or with others, a place of prostitution to aid the prostitution of an individual;

(4) owns, manages, supervises, controls, operates, institutes, aids or facilitates, either alone or with others, a business of prostitution to aid the prostitution of an individual;

(5) admits a patron to a place of prostitution to aid the prostitution of an individual; or

(6) transports an individual from one point within this state to another point either within or without this state, or brings an individual into this state to aid the prostitution of the individual.

Subd. 7a. Sex trafficking.

“Sex trafficking” means:

(1) receiving, recruiting, enticing, harboring, providing, or obtaining by any means an individual to aid in the prostitution of the individual; or

(2) receiving profit or anything of value, knowing or having reason to know it is derived from an act described in clause (1).

Subd. 7b. Sex trafficking victim.

“Sex trafficking victim” means a person subjected to the practices in subdivision 7a.

Subd. 8. Prostitute.

“Prostitute” means an individual who engages in prostitution by being hired, offering to be hired, or agreeing to be hired by another individual to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.

Subd. 9. Prostitution.

“Prostitution” means hiring, offering to hire, or agreeing to hire another individual to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact, or being hired, offering to be hired, or agreeing to be hired by another individual to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.

Subd. 10. Sexual contact.

“Sexual contact” means any of the following acts, if the acts can reasonably be construed as being for the purpose of satisfying the actor’s sexual impulses:

(i) the intentional touching by an individual of a prostitute’s intimate parts; or

(ii) the intentional touching by a prostitute of another individual’s intimate parts.

Subd. 11. Sexual penetration.

“Sexual penetration” means any of the following acts, if for the purpose of satisfying sexual impulses: sexual intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, anal intercourse, or any intrusion however slight into the genital or anal openings of an individual’s body by any part of another individual’s body or any object used for the purpose of satisfying sexual impulses. Emission of semen is not necessary.

Subd. 12. Public place.

A “public place” means a public street or sidewalk, a pedestrian skyway system as defined in section 469.125, subdivision 4, a hotel, motel, steam room, sauna, massage parlor, shopping mall and other public shopping areas, or other place of public accommodation, a place licensed to sell intoxicating liquor, wine, nonintoxicating malt beverages, or food, or a motor vehicle located on a public street, alley, or parking lot ordinarily used by or available to the public though not used as a matter of right and a driveway connecting such a parking lot with a street or highway.

Subd. 13. Place of public accommodation.

“Place of public accommodation” means a business, accommodation, refreshment, entertainment, recreation, or transportation facility of any kind, whether licensed or not, whose goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations are extended, offered, sold, or otherwise made available to the public.

Subd. 14. Prior qualified human trafficking-related offense.

A “prior qualified human trafficking-related offense” means a conviction or delinquency adjudication within the ten years from the discharge from probation or parole immediately preceding the current offense for a violation of or an attempt to violate section 609.322, subdivision 1 (solicitation, inducement, and promotion of prostitution; sex trafficking in the first degree); 609.322, subdivision 1a (solicitation, inducement, and promotion of prostitution; sex trafficking in the second degree); 609.282 (labor trafficking); or 609.283 (unlawful conduct with respect to documents in furtherance of labor or sex trafficking).

Solicitation, Inducement, and Promotion of Prostitution; Sex Trafficking – 609.322

Subdivision 1. Solicitation, inducement, and promotion of prostitution; sex trafficking in the first degree. 

(a) Whoever, while acting other than as a prostitute or patron, intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 25 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $50,000, or both:

(1) solicits or induces an individual under the age of 18 years to practice prostitution;

(2) promotes the prostitution of an individual under the age of 18 years;

(3) receives profit, knowing or having reason to know that it is derived from the prostitution, or the promotion of the prostitution, of an individual under the age of 18 years; or

(4) engages in the sex trafficking of an individual under the age of 18 years.

(b) Whoever violates paragraph (a) or subdivision 1a may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 30 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $60,000, or both, if one or more of the following aggravating factors are present:

(1) the offender has committed a prior qualified human trafficking-related offense;

(2) the offense involved a sex trafficking victim who suffered bodily harm during the commission of the offense;

(3) the time period that a sex trafficking victim was held in debt bondage or forced labor or services exceeded 180 days; or

(4) the offense involved more than one sex trafficking victim.

Subd. 1a. Solicitation, inducement, and promotion of prostitution; sex trafficking in the second degree.

Whoever, while acting other than as a prostitute or patron, intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $40,000, or both:

(1) solicits or induces an individual to practice prostitution;

(2) promotes the prostitution of an individual;

(3) receives profit, knowing or having reason to know that it is derived from the prostitution, or the promotion of the prostitution, of an individual; or

(4) engages in the sex trafficking of an individual.

Subd. 1b. Exceptions.

Subdivisions 1, paragraph (a), clause (3), and 1a, clause (3), do not apply to:

(1) a minor who is dependent on an individual acting as a prostitute and who may have benefited from or been supported by the individual’s earnings derived from prostitution; or

(2) a parent over the age of 55 who is dependent on an individual acting as a prostitute, who may have benefited from or been supported by the individual’s earnings derived from prostitution, and who did not know that the earnings were derived from prostitution; or

(3) the sale of goods or services to a prostitute in the ordinary course of a lawful business.

Subd. 1c. Aggregation of cases.

Acts by the defendant in violation of any one or more of the provisions in this section within any six-month period may be aggregated and the defendant charged accordingly in applying the provisions of this section; provided that when two or more offenses are committed by the same person in two or more counties, the accused may be prosecuted in any county in which one of the offenses was committed for all of the offenses aggregated under this subdivision.

H2 – Patrons; Prostitutes; Housing Individuals Engaged in Prostitution; Penalties – 609.324

Subdivision 1. Engaging in, hiring, or agreeing to hire minor to engage in prostitution; penalties.

(a) Whoever intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than 20 years or to payment of a fine of not more than $40,000, or both:

(1) engages in prostitution with an individual under the age of 14 years;

(2) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual under the age of 14 years to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact; or

(3) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual who the actor reasonably believes to be under the age of 14 years to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.

(b) Whoever intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than ten years or to payment of a fine of not more than $20,000, or both:

(1) engages in prostitution with an individual under the age of 16 years but at least 14 years;

(2) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual under the age of 16 years but at least 14 years to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact; or

(3) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual who the actor reasonably believes to be under the age of 16 years but at least 13 years to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.

(c) Whoever intentionally does any of the following may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both:

(1) engages in prostitution with an individual under the age of 18 years but at least 16 years;

(2) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual under the age of 18 years but at least 16 years to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact; or

(3) hires or offers or agrees to hire an individual who the actor reasonably believes to be under the age of 18 years but at least 16 years to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.

Subd. 1a. Housing unrelated minor engaged in prostitution; penalties.

Any person, other than one related by blood, adoption, or marriage to the minor, who permits a minor to reside, temporarily or permanently, in the person’s dwelling without the consent of the minor’s parents or guardian, knowing or having reason to know that the minor is engaging in prostitution may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both; except that, this subdivision does not apply to residential placements made, sanctioned, or supervised by a public or private social service agency.

Subd. 2. Patrons of prostitution; penalty.

(a) Whoever, while acting as a patron, intentionally does any of the following is guilty of a gross misdemeanor:

(1) engages in prostitution with an individual 18 years of age or older; or

(2) hires, offers to hire, or agrees to hire an individual 18 years of age or older to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.

Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 4, a person who is convicted of violating this subdivision must, at a minimum, be sentenced to pay a fine of at least $1,500.

(b) Whoever violates the provisions of this subdivision within ten years of a previous conviction for violating this section or section 609.322 is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than five years or to payment of a fine of not more than $10,000, or both.

Subd. 4. Community service in lieu of minimum fine.

The court may order a person convicted of violating subdivision 2 to perform community work service in lieu of all or a portion of the minimum fine required under those subdivisions if the court makes specific, written findings that the convicted person is indigent or that payment of the fine would create undue hardship for the convicted person or that person’s immediate family. Community work service ordered under this subdivision is in addition to any mandatory community work service ordered under subdivision 3.

Subd. 5. Use of motor vehicle to patronize prostitutes; driving record notation.

(a) When a court sentences a person convicted of violating this section while acting as a patron, the court shall determine whether the person used a motor vehicle during the commission of the offense and whether the person has previously been convicted of violating this section or section 609.322. If the court finds that the person used a motor vehicle during the commission of the offense, it shall forward its finding along with an indication of whether the person has previously been convicted of a prostitution offense to the commissioner of public safety who shall record the finding on the person’s driving record. Except as provided in paragraph (b), the finding is classified as private data on individuals, as defined in section 13.02, subdivision 12, but is accessible for law enforcement purposes.

(b) If the person has previously been convicted of a violation of this section or section 609.322, the finding is public data.

Subd. 6. Prostitution in public place; penalty for prostitutes.

Whoever, while acting as a prostitute, intentionally does any of the following while in a public place is guilty of a gross misdemeanor:

(1) engages in prostitution with an individual 18 years of age or older; or

(2) is hired, offers to be hired, or agrees to be hired by an individual 18 years of age or older to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.

Subd. 7. General prostitution crimes; penalties for prostitutes.

(a) Whoever, while acting as a prostitute, intentionally does any of the following is guilty of a misdemeanor:

(1) engages in prostitution with an individual 18 years of age or older; or

(2) is hired, offers to be hired, or agrees to be hired by an individual 18 years of age or older to engage in sexual penetration or sexual contact.

(b) Whoever violates the provisions of this subdivision within two years of a previous prostitution conviction for violating this section or section 609.322 is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

Prostitution Crimes Committed in School or Park Zones; Increased Penalties – 609.3242

Subdivision 1. Definitions.

As used in this section:

(1) “park zone” has the meaning given in section 152.01, subdivision 12a; and

(2) “school zone” has the meaning given in section 152.01, subdivision 14a, and also includes school bus stops established by a school board under section 123B.88, while school children are waiting for the bus.

Subd. 2. Increased penalties.

Any person who commits a violation of section 609.324 while acting other than as a prostitute while in a school or park zone may be sentenced as follows:

(1) if the crime committed is a felony, the statutory maximum for the crime is three years longer than the statutory maximum for the underlying crime;

(2) if the crime committed is a gross misdemeanor, the person is guilty of a felony and may be sentenced to imprisonment for not more than two years or to payment of a fine of not more than $4,000, or both; and

(3) if the crime committed is a misdemeanor, the person is guilty of a gross misdemeanor.

Loitering With Intent to Participate in Prostitution – 609.3243 

A person who loiters in a public place with intent to participate in prostitution is guilty of a misdemeanor.

Defenses – 609.325

Subdivision 1. No defense; solicited; not engaged.

It shall be no defense to a prosecution under section 609.322 that an individual solicited or induced to practice prostitution or whose prostitution was promoted, did not actually engage in prostitution.

Subd. 2. Consent no defense.

Consent or mistake as to age shall be no defense to prosecutions under section 609.322 or 609.324.

Subd. 3. No defense; prior prostitution.

It shall be no defense to actions under section 609.322 that the individual solicited or induced to practice prostitution, or whose prostitution was promoted, had engaged in prostitution prior to that solicitation, inducement, or promotion.

Subd. 3a. No defense; undercover operative.

The fact that an undercover operative or law enforcement officer was involved in the detection or investigation of an offense shall not be a defense to a prosecution under section 609.324.

Subd. 4. Affirmative defense.

It is an affirmative defense to a charge under section 609.324, subdivision 6 or 7, if the defendant proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the defendant is a labor trafficking victim, as defined in section 609.281, or a sex trafficking victim, as defined in section 609.321, and that the defendant committed the acts underlying the charge as a result of being a labor trafficking or sex trafficking victim.

Disorderly House – 609.33

Subdivision 1. Definition.

For the purpose of this section, “disorderly house” means a building, dwelling, place, establishment, or premises in which actions or conduct habitually occur in violation of laws relating to:

(1) the sale of intoxicating liquor or 3.2 percent malt liquor;

(2) gambling;

(3) prostitution as defined in section 609.321, subdivision 9, or acts relating to prostitution; or

(4) the sale or possession of controlled substances as defined in section 152.01, subdivision 4.

Subd. 2. Prohibiting owning or operating disorderly house.

No person may own, lease, operate, manage, maintain, or conduct a disorderly house, or invite or attempt to invite others to visit or remain in the disorderly house. A violation of this subdivision is a gross misdemeanor.

Subd. 3. Mandatory minimum penalties.

(a) If a person is convicted of a first violation of subdivision 2, in addition to any sentence of imprisonment authorized by subdivision 2 which the court may impose, the court shall impose a fine of not less than $300 nor more than $3,000.

(b) If a person is convicted of a second violation of subdivision 2, in addition to any sentence of imprisonment authorized by subdivision 2 which the court may impose, the court shall impose a fine of not less than $500 nor more than $3,000.

(c) If a person is convicted of a third or subsequent violation of subdivision 2, in addition to any sentence of imprisonment authorized by subdivision 2 which the court may impose, the court shall impose a fine of not less than $1,000 nor more than $3,000.

Subd. 4. Evidence.

Evidence of unlawful sales of intoxicating liquor or 3.2 percent malt liquor, of unlawful possession or sale of controlled substances, of prostitution or acts relating to prostitution, or of gambling or acts relating to gambling, is prima facie evidence of the existence of a disorderly house. Evidence of sales of intoxicating liquor or 3.2 percent malt liquor between the hours of 1:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m., while a person is within a disorderly house, is prima facie evidence that the person knew it to be a disorderly house.

Subd. 5. Local regulation.

Subdivisions 1 to 4 do not prohibit or restrict a local governmental unit from imposing more restrictive provisions.

Subd. 6. Pretrial release.

When a person is charged under this section with owning or leasing a disorderly house, the court may require as a condition of pretrial release that the defendant bring an eviction action against a lessee who has violated the covenant not to allow drugs established by section 504B.171.

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